Green hell in red world


Click to see a professional profile

  gold chemistry
  gold transport
  gold production
Gold Geology
  alluvial deposits
  primary deposits
  gold maps
Gold History
  gold lore

  diamond production
  diamond trade
  diamond value
  diamond wars
  diamond cutting
Diamonds History
  mining history
  large and famous
Diamond Pictures
  diamond pictures
Precious Stones
  gem cutting

BANKA Alluvial Drills
  drilling manual
  HAND drills
  drill parts
  tools 1
  tools 2
  tools 3
  tools 4
  MOTOR drills

DEUTZ engines
mining systems
gravel pumps
water pumps
high pressure
 water pumps

pump stands
engine-pump frames
Pipes, Hoses, etc.
water systems
Recovery systems
recovery systems
gold recovery
diamond recovery
River Dredges
diver-less dredges
firefighting pumps
Trucks 4x4
4x4 trucks
Spare Parts

photo geology
seismic survey
field manager

la version française - la version française la versíon española - la versíon española



Kimberlitic Pipes

The 24 known pipes are distributed in 2 groups:
- 14 to the west all on the plateau close to the cliff,
- 10 to the east, of which half at the bottom of the cliff.

These 2 groups are distributed each longitudinally with a predominance of alignments at 172°-175°. This same alignment, one recovers everywhere in Africa where kimberlitic pipes are found. Other kimberlitic pipes can be suspected to the NW (indications of Diamba-Malira-Maswala) and to the NE (indications of Luimanwe). The total surface of the 24 recognized pipes is of 150 ha, either 6,2 ha/pipe, an elevated number.

The reports (V. BRIEN, 1913 - Anonymous, 1926) conclude to the inexploitability because of the very weak content, of the smallness and especially of the bad quality of the diamond and the toughness of the kimberlite, expensive to treat. One also notices that a lot of samplings of pipes were massive and even exaggerated. It doesn't seem on the other hand that anyone was interested in the eluviums and the alluviums.


The kimberlites of Kundelungu and their minerals have been studied well by J. VERHOOGEN (1938) and N. KORETZKY (1966) added number of complementary observations. The replenishment of the pipes is generally breccia very loaded with xenoliths pulled from sidewalls that can reach up to 50% of the total volume. The outcrops are often a hard layer (hardebank), otherwise the yellow muddy ground with heavy minerals predominates, the blue ground being rare. The experience seems to show that kimberlites hard on surface are often poor. There is no thermal metamorphism of enclaves, but there was a secondary feeding in quartz and microcline of sandstones and shales, probably posterior and hydrothermal. The temperature of the kimberlite at the time of intrusion had to be very low. KORETZKY notes the presence of inclusions of dolerite with oligoclase different from those of the Katanga, of mica-schists with magnetite that could belong to the Kibaras Formation that would be underlying, and of eclogites with sodium pyroxene that would have rather a metamorphic origin. Some kimberlites with mica exist, and others basaltic of brownish dark colours that constitute the essential of the pipes in the western group, with exception of Kashioba to the north that is isolated. The mineralogy of concentrates is simple and classic: ilmenite, garnet, olivine, diopside and magnetite. The pyrope is red dark (70% of the pyrope - 30% almandin), and the content made of garnet is very variable: 88,5% of the concentrates in Gondolo, 57,5% in Kashioba, 0,6% in Zefu, and without report with the diamond content. The olivine rich in forsterite is only frequent in Kashioba, very rare elsewhere. The green diopside only represents 1% of the concentrates.

Mr. STADELHOFFEN estimates that the kimberlites of the Kundulungu are more like alnoïtes that "true kimberlites".

To title of comparison one can give the following analysis: one will note the meaningful abundance of titanium.

Analysis of kimberlite of Katanga (Kundelungu)

SiO2   32.20%
Al2O3   3.55%
Fe2O3   10.75%
FeO   1.50%
TiO2   3.25%
MnO   0.20%
CaO   3.85%
MgO   29.25%
Na2O   <0,05%
K2O   0,05%
P2O5   2.45%
H2O   2.45%
H2O+   10.15%
Ni   820 ppm
Cr   1,470 ppm
Cu   151 ppm
Sc   17 ppm
Sr   315 ppm
Ba   404 ppm
Density:   2.45 g/c m3

Diamond Geology [ 1  India  3  4  5  6  7  8  Brazil  10  11  12  13  14  15  16  17  18  19  20  Borneo  22   South Africa  24  25  26  27  28  29  30  31  32  33  34  35  36  37  38  39  40  Venezuela, Guyana  42  Australia  44  Argyle  Congo  46  47  48  49  50  51  52  53  54  55  Angola  57  58  59  Guinea  ]

Related links: Diamonds: Large and Famous   Properties   Geology and Mining Diamond Cutting Gem Cutting Diamond Trade  Values of diamonds
Recomend this page:

Seismic Survey 

Rafal Swiecki, geological engineer email contact

This document is in the public domain.

March, 2011