<b>Wersja Polska</b>
WERSJA POLSKA

Michail Tukhachevski

Michail Tukhachevski, marshal of bolshevik Union


Semyon Mikhailovich Budienny, marshal of bolshevik Union

Gayk Bzhishkyan

Gayk Bzhishkyan, Commander

The Magdeburg Sting 1936

Bolshevik leaders during Polish-bolshevik War


Michail Tukhachevski, (February 16, 1893 - June 11, 1937) From 1935 to 1937, he was the marshal of Soviet Union.

In Imperial Army, he was lieutenant, but he never had to lead a platoon or a company. In 1915, he was taken prisoner by Germans, then he was let to "escape" to act later as German spy.

In 1918, he joined Bolshevik Party and Red Army. As result of having some success in the fight against white armies of Denikin, Kolczak, and Czech Legion, during Polish-bolshevik war, in 1920, he was put in charge of the western front. During Battle of Warsaw, he failed as a military leader and greatly contributed to the bolshevik defeat. The same inability to lead, he has shown during the second major battle of Polish-bolshevik war, the Battle of Niemen.

In 1921, he led the pacification of Kronsztad uprising and later the repression of anti-bolshevik peasants. Against poorly armed or unarmed opponents, he was a successful military leader.

From 1925 to 1928, he became the head of Red Army's HQ. In June 1931, he was named the vice president of War Cabinet, the political vice commissar of Army and Navy and chef of Army Supplies. He started a program of tank production. In 1937, he was appointed by Stalin the commander of Volga Military District.

During the Great Purge, he was accused of being German spy. He was arrested May 22, 1937. During well publicized trial, he admitted his culpability and was executed on June 11, 1937.

Semyon Mikhailovich Budienny (April 25, 1883 - October 26, 1973) was a bolshevik military commander and an ally of bolshevik leader Joseph Stalin.

Budienny was born into a poor peasant family in the Terek Cossack region of southern Russia. He worked as a farm laborer until 1903, when he was drafted into the Army of Russian Empire, becoming a cavalryman and serving in the Russo-Japanese War of 1905.

During World War I he was a non-commissioned officer on the western front until 1916, when he was transferred to the Caucasus front. When the Bolshevik Revolution overthrew the Tzar in 1917, he was radicalized like many soldiers and became a leading member of the soldiers' councils (bolsheviks) in the Caucasus area.

Civil War broke out in 1918, and Budienny organized a red cavalry force in the Don region, which eventually became the 1st Cavalry Army. This Army played an important role in winning the Civil War for the Bolsheviks, driving the white general Anton Denikin out of Moscow. Budienny joined the Bolshevik party in 1919, and formed a close relationships with Joseph Stalin and Kliment Voroshilov.

In 1920, Budienny's Cavalry Army took part in the invasion of Poland during Polish-bolshevik War, in which it was quite successful at first, pushing Polish forces out of Ukraine and later breaking through Polish southern front. However later the Bolsheviks forces sustained a heavy defeat in the Battle of Warsaw, mainly because Budienny's Army was bogged down at Lwów. After his army was defeated in the Battle of Komarów (one of the biggest cavalry battles of the world), Budienny was then sent south to fight the opposition in Ukraine and Crimea. Despite the defeat in Poland, he was one of the bolshevik military heroes by the end of Civil War.

Budienny was considered a courageous and colorful cavalry officer, but knew little about modern warfare, particularly the impact of tanks. He was appointed to the position of Cavalry Inspector of the Red Army and similar honorific posts, and remained one of Stalin's "Civil War cronies" who held increasing influence as Stalin consolidated himself as the unquestioned dictator of Soviet Union.

In 1935, Budienny was made one of the first five Marshals of Soviet Union. Later, three of these five were executed in the Great Purge of the late 1930s, leaving only Budienny and Voroshilov. In 1937, Budienny commanded the Moscow Military District, and in the bolshevik-finnish War he commanded an army, with disastrous results. Nevertheless, in 1940, Budienny was made the Deputy People's Commissar for Defense, a position for which he was quite unsuited.

In July-September 1941, Budienny was Commander-in-Chief of the bolshevik armed forces of the Southwestern Direction (Southwestern and Southern Fronts) facing the German invasion of Ukraine which began in June. These forces were eventually surrounded, at Uman and at Kiev. These disasters cost the bolshevik Union 1.5 million men killed or taken prisoner, one of the greatest routs in military history.

In September, Stalin dismissed Budienny and replaced him with Semyon Timoshenko. He was placed in charge of the reserve front (September-October 1941), Commander-in-Chief of the troops in the North Caucasus District (April-May, 1942), Commander of the North Caucasus front (May-August, 1942), and the obsolete bolshevik Cavalry (since 1943). Despite being responsible (although acting on Stalin's orders) for some of the catastrophic bolshevik defeats, he continued to enjoy Stalin's patronage and suffered no punishment. After the war, he was allowed to retire as the Hero of Soviet Union.

Gayk Bzhishkyan - Hayk Bzhishkyan (February 6, 1887- December 11, 1937) was the bolshevik military commander during the Russian Civil War and Polish-bolshevik War.

He was Armenian, born in Tabriz, Iran to a family of teachers. He joined the Army of Imperial Russia as praporshchik (an officer rank similar to ensign) and fought in World War I. After the Russian Revolution, he joined the Bolsheviks and became a Party member and military commander in 1918, when he fought against the Czech Legion ("White-Czechs") and the Orenburg Cossacks of ataman Alexander Dutov.

During the Polish-bolshevik War he commanded the 2nd Cavalry Corps and (from July) 3rd Cavalry Corps on the right flank of the Western Front.

In August 1920, he covered the retreat of the 4th Army and was interned in East Prussia.

Since 1922, he was the People's Commissar of the Army and Navy of the Armenian SSR and later a military history lecturer.

Since 1933, he was the Chair of Department of War History and Military Art in Zhukovsky Air Force Engineering Academy.

He was twice awarded with the Order of the Red Banner: in 1919 for battles in Volga Region of 1918 and in 1920 for the Polish campaign.

On July 3, 1935, he was arrested, accused of "the participation in an anti-bolshevik terrorist organization" by the Military Supreme Court on December 13, 1937, tried and executed the same day.


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